The best known and most studied aspect of forensic computer science , a branch of digital forensic science linked to evidence acquired by computers and other digital storage devices, is the computer forensic which deals, for evidential purposes, with techniques and tools for the methodological examination of information systems. However, other aspects related to the use of information technology in the trial are also becoming increasingly important: a typical example is the so-called virtual “judicial experiment” in which the computer is used to reproduce a fact through the so-called “virtual reality”.
In the field of forensic information technology, a fundamental aspect is the protection of data on the storage media, placed under the constraint of seizure; therefore, not in the availability of the owner. To safeguard the data and guarantee the inalterability of the latter, the operators responsible for analyzing the storage devices use certain methods aimed at guaranteeing and proving the exact correspondence of the contents at any time of the analysis. To make this possible, it is necessary to “freeze” the data, that is, to implement the technological devices to prevent (even accidental) bit writing and to verify that at a later time the data present are the same. To fulfill these obligations, in addition to the use of hardware or software tools that inhibit any writing on storage devices, forensic technical methodology algorithms are used.
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